There are other local goddesses with motherly features, including the northern Canmu (Chinese: 蠶母 "Silkworm Mother") and Mazu (Chinese: 媽祖 "Ancestral Mother"), popular in provinces along the eastern coast and in Taiwan.  The Guodian texts include, among others, the Taiyi Shengshui (Chinese: 《太一生水》; lit. The Chinese Society for Shamanic Studies was founded in Jilin City in 1988. Deities can also be respected through moral deeds in their name (shanshi Chinese: 善事), and self-cultivation (xiuxing Chinese: 修行). , In the holistic view about nature and the human body and life, as macro and microcosmos, the life process of a human being is equated with the rhythm of seasons and cosmic changes.  Bixia herself is identified by Taoists as the more ancient goddess Xiwangmu, Goddesses are commonly entitled mǔ (Chinese: 母 "mother"), lǎomǔ (Chinese: 老母 "old mother"), shèngmǔ (Chinese: 聖母 "holy mother"), niángniáng (Chinese: 娘娘 "lady"), nǎinai (Chinese: 奶奶 "granny").  In the 20th century, with the decline of the empire, increasing urbanisation and Western influence, the issue for the new intellectual class was no longer controlling unauthorised worship of unregistered gods, but became the delegitimisation of the ancient Chinese religion as a superstitious obstacle to modernisation. Altars of goddess worship are usually arranged with Bixia at the center and two goddesses at her sides, most frequently the Lady of Eyesight and the Lady of Offspring. Universal Church of the Way and its Virtue, Japanese invasion of China between 1937 and 1945, Way of the Gods according to the Confucian Tradition, five constellations rotating around the celestial pole, Hong Kong Government Lunar New Year kau chim tradition, Religions & Christianity in Today's China, The Policy of Legitimation and the Revival of Popular Religion in Shaanbei, North-Central China, Religion and Philosophy in Chinese History, Guodian: The Newly Discovered Seeds of Chinese Religious and Political Philosophy, Antagonistic Discourses on Shamanic Folklore in Modern China, Shamanistic Studies in China: A Preliminary Survey of the Last Decade, Religion and Society.  Humans are considered one of the three aspects of a trinity (Chinese: 三才 Sāncái, "Three Powers"), the three foundations of all being; specifically, men are the medium between Heaven that engenders order and forms and Earth which receives and nourishes them. Chinese: 堂 Táng, meaning "hall" or "church hall", originally referred to the central hall of secular buildings but it entered religious usage as a place of worship of the folk religious sects.  These are interpreted in different ways in Taoism and folk sects, the former conferring them long kataphatic names.  Special devotional currents within this framework can be identified by specific names such as Mazuism (Chinese: 媽祖教 Māzǔjiào), Wang Ye worship, or the cult of the Silkworm Mother.. Temples and the gods in them acquire symbolic character and perform specific functions involved in the everyday life of the local community.  The gods (shen Chinese: 神; "growth", "beings that give birth") are interwoven energies or principles that generate phenomena which reveal or reproduce the way of Heaven, that is to say the order (li) of the Greatnine(Tian).  Liebman described the rituals and beliefs of contemporary Jewish folk religion in his works, The Ambivalent American Jew (1973) and American Jewry: Identity and Affiliation. Some of these terms have a precise functional use, although with time some confusion has arisen and some of them have been used interchangeably in some contexts.  Shen in the meaning of "spiritual" is a synonym. Chinese folk religion, also known as popular religion, is a polyphyletic term used to describe the diversity of practices in areas generally termed "religion", of persons of Chinese heritage, including the Chinese diaspora. In many cases, folk Buddhism merely appropriated and subordinated indigenous symbols, beliefs, and practices with very little change in meaning. Folk Islam is an umbrella term used to collectively describe forms of Islam that incorporate native folk beliefs and practices.  After the fall of the empire in 1911, governments and elites opposed or attempted to eradicate the ancient Chinese religion in order to promote "modern" values, and many condemned "feudal superstition". , Alternately, the sociologist of religion Matthias Zic Varul defined "folk religion" as "the relatively un-reflected aspect of ordinary practices and beliefs that are oriented towards, or productive of, something beyond the immediate here-and-now: everyday transcendence". This type of religion is prevalent in north China, where lineage religion is absent, private, or historically present only within families of southern origin, and patrilineal ties are based on seniority, and villages are composed of people with different surnames. The man began to miraculously recover each passing day, and after a year he was completely healed. ", However, there is considerable discrepancy between what Chinese and Western cultures intend with the concepts of "belief", "existence" and "practice". 'ghost'), with yang ("act") usually preferred over yin ("receptiveness") in common religion. Citing: Dean, Kenneth. , Yoder described "folk religion" as existing "in a complex society in relation to and in tension with the organized religion(s) of that society. , Two influential and competing folk sectarian currents: one in, Examples of temples from two different parts of China: the Temple of the, Confucianism, Taoism and orders of ritual masters, "Taoised" indigenous religions of ethnic minorities, Worship and modalities of religious practice, Other non-Sino-Tibetan ethnic religions present in China, In common Chinese cosmology, the world isn't created, Temples are usually built in accordance with, The White Sulde (White Spirit) is one of the two spirits of Genghis Khan (the other being the Black Sulde), represented either as his white or yellow horse or as a fierce warrior riding this horse. 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